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Ito R;Shinoda M;Honda K;Urata K;Lee J;Maruno M;Soma K;Okada S;Gionhaku N;Iwata K
AIMS: To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. METHODS: A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFalpha expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined. Student t test or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were used for statistical analyses. P < .05 was considered to reflect statistical significance. RESULTS: Mechanical allodynia in the masseter muscle was induced without any inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle after TMJ inflammation. SGC activation and an increased number of TNFalpha-immunoreactive cells were induced in the TG following TMJ inflammation. Intra-TG administration of an inhibitor of SGC activity or of TNFalpha-neutralizing antibody depressed both the increased number of TG cells encircled by activated SGCs and the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter following TMJ inflammation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that persistent masseter hypersensitivity associated with TMJ inflammation was mediated by SGC-TG neuron interactions via TNFalpha signaling in the TG.